Skip to main content

HIV maternal-fetal transmission in a low resources setting in the outskirts of Buenos Aires, Argentina

Purpose of the study

HIV maternal-fetal transmission (MFT-HIV) in Argentina is around 6%, one of the highest rates in Latin America. Most cases occur in the outskirts of Buenos Aires, a highly populated, low resources setting where the hospitals of this study are located. Our objective was to assess reasons, risk factors and percentage of MFT-HIV, characteristics of HIV+ pregnant women (PW), and evaluation of preventive measurements.

Methods

Prospective, descriptive, study of HIV+ PW and their newborns (NB) from 1997 to 2006 in two hospitals of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

Summary of results

211 HIV+ mother-child binomium were evaluated, and 171 (81%) NB were studied: nine acquired HIV (5.26%) (at least one PCR+ or ELISA+ at 18 months). Mean mother's age 26.8 years (15–40): MFT+: 29 years vs. MFT-: 27.2 years (p = 0.31). Way of HIV acquisition: sexual (96.2%), intravenous drug use (2.5%), blood transfusion (1.3%); all TMF+ sexual (p = 0.59).

Seventy-three (42.7%) women began HIV follow-up previous to pregnancy: 6 TMF+ vs. 67 TMF- (p = 0.13); 19 (11.1%) before 14 weeks: all NFT-; 36 (21%) between 15–28 weeks: all NFT-, 32 (18.7%) after 29 weeks: all NFT-; and 11 (6.4%) post-partum: 2 TMF+ vs. 9 TMF- (p = 0.0047).

During pregnancy, 134 (63.5%) women received ART: AZT (11.5%), AZT-ddI (0.6%), AZT-3TC (3.6%), AZT-3TC-IDV/RTV (1.2%), AZT-3TC-LPV/RTV (0.6%), AZT-3TC-NFV (7.9%), AZT-3TC-NVP (66.6%), AZT-3TC-SQV/RTV (7.9%); 34 MFT- and 3 MFT+ did not receive (p = 0.38) Viral load (VL) measured previous to labor in 73 (42.7%) women: 43 <1000 (58.9%). VL was not available in 89 MFT- and 9 MFT+ (p = 0.02). 109 (63.7%) were elective Caesarean: 56 MFT- vs. 3 MFT+ (p = 0.11) In 145 (84.4%) cases, i.v. AZT was administered intra-labor; 4 MFT+ vs. 22 MFT- did not receive intra-partum AZT (p = 0.042) One NB died perinatally (0.58%). Mean gestational age: 37.9 weeks. MFT-: 38.0 vs. MFT+: 39.1 (p = 0.0302); eight (4.67%) NB premature, all MFT- (p = 0.49). Mean birth weight 2,895.7 g (1,450–4,500). MFT-: 2,884 g vs. MFT+ 3,093 g (p = 0.0938); 42 NB (24.6%) presented low birth weight; MFT-: 41 vs. MFT+: 1 (p = 0.33).

163 (95.3%) NB received ART: AZT(93.9%), AZT-3TC-NVP (5.52%), AZT-NVP (0.6%); 6 MFT- and 2 TMF+ did not (p = 0.013). Nine (5.26%) NB were breastfed, 7 MFT- vs. 2 MFT+ (p = 0.019).

Conclusion

Beginning of HIV follow-up post-partum, availability of VL result at the moment of delivery, AZT intra-partum, higher gestational age, lack of administration of ART to the newborn, and breastfeeding were significant for HIV-MFT. It is mandatory to re-affirm the importance of the fulfillment of measures destined to diminish the probability of HIV-MFT.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hojman, M., Murano, F., Manonelles, G. et al. HIV maternal-fetal transmission in a low resources setting in the outskirts of Buenos Aires, Argentina. JIAS 11, P227 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1186/1758-2652-11-S1-P227

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1758-2652-11-S1-P227

Keywords

  • Public Health
  • Infectious Disease
  • Pregnant Woman
  • Birth Weight
  • Viral Load