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Table 2 STI and pregnancy among orphans versus non-orphans

From: HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study n ♂♀ All orphans vs. non-orphans Maternal orphans vs. non-orphans Paternal orphans vs. non-orphans Double orphans vs. non-orphans
   STI other than HIV Pregnancy STI other than HIV Pregnancy STI other than HIV Pregnancy STI other than HIV Pregnancy
Birdthistle [29] 863 ♀    aOR = 5.9 (2.2-15.7) aOR = 3.7 (1.0-14.0) aOR = 3.5 (1.5-8.4) ns ns ns
Gregson [30] 1523 ♂♀    ns aOR = 1.98 (1.05-3.74) ns ns   
Kang [31] 196 ♀ ns ns ns aOR = 3.14 (1.17-8.43) ns ns   
Operario [34] 11,904♂♀ ns aOR = 1.15 (1.01-1.34)       
Palermo [35] Benin 1801 ♀   ns   ns   ns   aOR = 2.62
Palermo [35] Chad 884 ♀   aOR = 1.69   ns   aOR = 1.83   ns
Palermo [35] Congo 914 ♀   ns   ns   ns   ns
Palermo [35] Cote d'Ivoire 711 ♀   aOR = 1.69   aOR = 2.57   ns   ns
Palermo [35] Lesotho 1043 ♀   ns   ns   ns   ns
Palermo [35] Malawi 1337 ♀   ns   ns   ns   ns
Palermo [35] Mozambique 1484 ♀   ns   ns   ns   ns
Palermo [35] Tanzania 1375 ♀   ns   ns   ns   ns
Palermo [35] Uganda 1219 ♀   ns   ns   ns   ns
Palermo [35] Zimbabwe 1207 ♀   ns   ns   ns   ns
  1. aOR = adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. ns = non-significant result. Odds ratios >1 indicate that orphans had significantly higher odds of STI or pregnancy. Confidence intervals were not available for the study by Palermo et al [35]. This table uses adjusted odds ratios rather than risk ratios because odds ratios were reported consistently throughout the primary studies, and we had insufficient data to transform them; we report adjusted odds ratios here as calculated in the primary studies.