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Table 2 Transportation to the clinic, cost of seeking treatment and perceptions of care at the HIV*

From: Barriers to initiation of antiretroviral treatment in rural and urban areas of Zambia: a cross-sectional study of cost, stigma, and perceptions about ART

  Urban Rural Total
Exposure Home-based care On ART Relative risk
(95% CI)
Home-based care On ART Relative risk
(95% CI)
Relative risk
(95% CI)
Transport used (would be used) to get to the HIV clinic
   Walked 193/200 (96.5%) 180/200 (90.0%) 1.07 (1.02 - 1.13) 188/200 (94.0%) 143/200 (71.5%) 1.31 (1.20 - 1.44) 1.18 (1.12 - 1.24)
   Taxi 13/200 (6.5%) 27/200 (13.5%) 0.48 (0.26 - 0.91) 7/200 (3.5%) 6/200 (3.0%) 1.17 (0.40 - 3.41) 0.61 (0.35 - 1.04)
   Private car 2/200 (1.0%) 7/200 (3.5%) 0.29 (0.06 - 1.36) 14/200 (7.0%) 11/200 (5.5%) 1.27 (0.59 - 2.74) 0.89 (0.46 - 1.72)
   Bicycle 2/200 (1.0%) 2/200 (1.0%) 1.00 (0.14 - 7.03) 21/200 (10.5%) 49/200 (24.5%) 0.43 (0.27 - 0.69) 0.45 (0.28 - 0.72)
   Bus 18/200 (9.0%) 22/200 (11.0%) 0.82 (0.45 - 1.48) 1/200 (0.5%) 18/200 (9.0%) 0.06 (0.01 - 0.41) 0.48 (0.28 - 0.81)
Barriers to seeking care
   It is very difficult to get to the clinic 34/200 (17.0%) 21/200 (10.5%) 1.62 (0.97 - 2.69) 43/199 (21.6%) 31/200 (15.5%) 1.39 (0.92 - 2.12) 1.48 (1.07 - 2.05)
   I can't leave my work to go to the ARV clinic 25/181 (13.8%) 17/195 (8.7%) 1.58 (0.89 - 2.84) 12/174 (6.9%) 5/191 (2.6%) 2.63 (0.95 - 7.33) 1.83 (1.10 - 3.04)
   I do not have time to go to the ARV clinic 2/197 (1.0%) 0/198 (0%)   9/196 (4.6%) 4/200 (2.0%) 2.30 (0.72 - 7.33) 2.78 (1.55 - 4.99)
   The ARV clinic is too far for me to travel to 52/190 (27.4%) 16/197 (8.1%) 3.37 (2.00 - 5.69) 81/196 (41.3%) 55/198 (27.8%) 1.49 (1.12 - 1.97) 1.92 (1.64 - 2.24)
To visit the clinic, I have to/would have to:
   Pay a fee at the clinic 19/200 (9.5%) 2/200 (1.0%) 9.50 (2.24 - 40.3) 9/199 (4.5%) 11/200 (5.5%) 0.82 (0.35 - 1.94) 2.16 (1.14 - 4.11)
   Pay to travel 96/199 (48.2%) 34/200 (17.0%) 2.84 (2.02 - 3.98) 29/197 (14.7%) 37/200 (18.5%) 0.80 (0.51 - 1.24) 1.78 (1.38 - 2.30)
   Spend night away from home 1/149 (0.7%) 2/127 (1.6%) 0.43 (0.04 - 4.65) 4/198 (2.0%) 2/199 (1.0%) 2.01 (0.37 - 10.9) 1.17 (0.32 - 4.34)
   Pay someone to take over my tasks 27/200 (13.5%) 11/200 (5.5%) 2.45 (1.25 - 4.81) 5/198 (2.5%) 3/200 (1.5%) 1.68 (0.41 - 6.95) 2.30 (1.25 - 4.24)
   Other costs 24/200 (12.0%) 22/199 (11.1%) 1.09 (0.63 - 1.87) 27/199 (13.6%) 6/200 (3.0%) 4.52 (1.91 - 10.7) 1.82 (1.17 - 2.83)
   Visit the clinic > once/month 34/109 (31.2%) 10/199 (5.0%) 6.21 (3.19 - 12.1) 40/152 (26.3%) 21/199 (10.6%) 2.49 (1.54 - 4.05) 3.64 (2.47 - 5.37)
Do you perceive the ___ at the clinic to be good/excellent?
   Service 81/200 (40.5%) 131/200 (65.5%) 0.62 (0.51 - 0.75) 117/199 (58.8%) 170/200 (85.0%) 0.69 (0.61 - 0.79) 0.66 (0.59 - 0.74)
   Provider time 91/200 (45.5%) 139/198 (70.2%) 0.65 (0.54 - 0.77) 87/199 (43.7%) 150/200 (75.0%) 0.58 (0.49 - 0.70) 0.61 (0.54 - 0.70)
   Waiting time 35/199 (17.6%) 43/199 (21.6%) 0.81 (0.55 - 1.22) 42/198 (21.2%) 45/200 (22.5%) 0.94 (0.65 - 1.37) 0.88 (0.67 - 1.15)
   Counselling 112/200 (56.0%) 147/199 (73.9%) 0.76 (0.65 - 0.88) 108/199 (54.3%) 147/200 (73.5%) 0.74 (0.63 - 0.86) 0.75 (0.67 - 0.83)
   Staff concern 74/200 (37.0%) 123/199 (61.8%) 0.60 (0.48 - 0.74) 81/198 (40.9%) 148/200 (74.0%) 0.55 (0.46 - 0.67) 0.57 (0.50 - 0.66)
   Convenience of clinic hours 154/200 (77.0%) 136/199 (68.3%) 1.13 (1.00 - 1.27) 119/199 (59.8%) 132/199 (66.3%) 0.90 (0.78 - 1.05) 1.02 (0.92 - 1.12)