Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic characteristics of subjects in a cross-sectional survey in rural and urban areas of Zambia*

From: Barriers to initiation of antiretroviral treatment in rural and urban areas of Zambia: a cross-sectional study of cost, stigma, and perceptions about ART

Demographic characteristics Urban: n (%) Rural: n (%)
  ARVs
(N = 200)
HBC
(N = 200)
ARVs
(N = 200)
HBC
(N = 200)
Female 129 (65) 122 (61) 133 (67) 121 (61)
Age     
   <30 52 (26) 52 (26) 33 (16) 29 (15)
   30.0 - 39.9 89 (45) 68 (34) 83 (42) 85 (42)
   40.0 - 49.9 44 (22) 30 (15) 72 (36) 47 (23)
   50.0 - 59.9 12 (6) 32 (16) 8 (4) 18 (9)
   60.0+ 3 (2) 18 (9) 2 (1) 18 (9)
   Missing 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (1) 3 (2)
Marital status     
   Single 31 (16) 28 (14) 25 (13) 28 (14)
   Engaged/married 110 (55) 94 (47) 106 (53) 126 (63)
   Widowed/divorced/separated 59 (30) 78 (39) 69 (35) 46 (23)
Common language used     
   Nyanja 59 (30) 65 (33) 21 (11) 18 (9)
   Bemba 44 (22) 29 (15) 20 (10) 12 (6)
   Tonga 28 (14) 37 (18) 101 (51) 103 (51)
   Lozi 41 (21) 33 (17) 15 (8) 10 (5)
   Others 28 (14) 36 (17) 43 (22) 57 (28)
Educational level     
   Never attended school 11 (6) 18 (9) 10 (5) 22 (11)
   Attended/completed primary school 84 (42) 87 (44) 99 (50) 127 (64)
   Attended secondary school 59 (29) 71 (35) 69 (34) 40 (20)
   Completed secondary school 36 (18) 23 (11) 18 (9) 6 (3)
   Attended/completed tertiary education 10 (5) 1 (1) 4 (2) 5 (2)
Ability to communicate in English     
   Very well 58 (29) 27 (14) 23 (12) 18 (9)
   Somewhat 73 (36) 88 (43) 104 (52) 69 (34)
   Not able to 68 (34) 85 (43) 73 (37) 113 (57)
   Missing 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Respondents' most important economic activity     
   Formal employment 26 (13) 19 (9) 26 (13) 25 (12)
   Self-employed 95 (47) 85 (42) 114 (57) 105 (52)
   Unemployed 71 (36) 77 (39) 47 (24) 53 (27)
   Other 8 (4) 19 (10) 13 (6) 16 (8)
   Missing 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1)
Self-reported economic status     
   Much or somewhat poorer than most 97 (48) 133 (66) 108 (54) 124 (62)
   About the same as most 84 (42) 61 (30) 68 (34) 57 (28)
   Somewhat or much wealthier than most 18 (9) 5 (2) 24 (12) 18 (9)
   Missing 1 (1) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (1)
Health-seeking decisions made primarily by:     
   Self 100 (50) 96 (48) 114 (57) 127 (63)
   Parents 32 (16) 25 (13) 31 (15) 17 (9)
   Spouse 31 (16) 24 (12) 36 (18) 43 (21)
   Others 37 (18) 55 (27) 19 (10) 12 (6)
   Missing 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1)
Primary source of money for buying household food     
   Respondent (self) 110 (55) 102 (51) 125 (62) 127 (63)
   Parents 17 (8) 13 (6) 25 (13) 5 (2)
   Spouse 46 (23) 35 (18) 39 (20) 58 (29)
   Other 27 (14) 50 (25) 11 (5) 9 (5)
   Missing 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1)
Frequency of going without a meal     
   Usually/always 54 (27) 14 (7) 28 (14) 31 (15)
   Sometimes 114 (57) 133 (66) 109 (55) 92 (46)
   Seldom/almost never 32 (16) 53 (27) 63 (32) 76 (38)
   Missing 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1)
Household source of drinking water     
   Tap inside the house 13 (7) 5 (2) 2 (1) 6 (3)
   Own tap outside the house 73 (37) 70 (35) 8 (4) 12 (6)
   Shared community source 111 (56) 124 (62) 186 (94) 176 (88)
   Other 3 (2) 1 (0) 4 (2) 5 (2)
   Missing 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1)
Type of sanitary facility     
   Flush toilet 64 (32) 37 (18) 5 (3) 4 (2)
   Traditional pit latrine 111 (56) 116 (58) 161 (81) 114 (57)
   Ventilated improved pit latrine 12 (6) 22 (11) 3 (2) 0 (0)
   None 13 (7) 25 (13) 31 (16) 80 (40)
   Missing 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (1)
Households reported to have or own     
   Electricity 97 (49) 47 (24) 10 (5) 11(5)
   Cellular phone 144 (72) 99 (50) 79 (40) 56 (28)
   Radio 135 (68) 94 (47) 125 (63) 96 (48)
   Television 115 (58) 77 (39) 24 (12) 30 (15)