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Table 2 Socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and biological risk factors for HIV infection among women in Zimbabwe and Tanzania

From: Sexual behaviour does not reflect HIV-1 prevalence differences: a comparison study of Zimbabwe and Tanzania

Determinants of HIV transmission Harare, Zimbabwe Moshi, Tanzania
  Number tested Number HIV positive (%) Unadjusted OR 1 (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Number tested Number HIV positive (%) Unadjusted OR 1 (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
All 691 177 (25.6)    2654 184 (6.9)   
Socio-demographic factors
Age group in years         
   < 20 134 20 (14.9) 1 1 479 13 (2.8) 1 1
   20-24 265 56 (21.1) 1.5 (0.9-2.8) 2.5 (1.1-5.9)* 996 59 (5.9) 2.2 (1.2-4.1) 2.2 (1.1-4.4)*
   25-29 168 53 (31.2) 2.6 (1.5-4.7)** 3.1 (1.3-7.1)* 664 67 (10.1) 4.0 (2.2-7.3) 4.4 (2.2-8.9)**
   > = 30 121 48 (39.8) 3.7 (2.1-6.8)** 3.9 (1.6-9.3)* 523 45 (8.6) 3.3 (1.8-6.2) 3.2 (1.5-6.6)*
Parity         
   No child 270 45 (16.8) 1 - 1064 51 (4.8) 1  
   One ore more 419 132 (31.5) 2.3 (1.6-3.4)** - 1590 133 (8.4) 1.8 (1.3-2.6)**  
Marital status         
   Married/cohabiting 649 166 (25.6) 1 - 2414 161 (6.7) 1 -
   Single/d/s/w2 40 11 (27.5) 1.1 (0.5-2.3) - 240 23 (9.6) 1.5 (0.9-2.4)* -
Years in school         
   8 or more 568 144 (25.4) 1 - 271 20 (7.4) 1 -
   Less than 8 123 33 (26.8) 1.1 (0.7-1.7) - 2383 164 (6.9) 0.9 (0.6-1.6) -
Type of marriage         
   Monogamy 620 153 (24.7) 1 - 2358 139 (5.9) 1 1
   Polygamy 54 21 (38.9) 1.9 (1.0-3.6)** - 296 45 (15.2) 2.9 (1.9-4.1)** 1.8 (1.2-2.7)*
Alcohol consumption         
   No 656 170 (25.9) 1 - 1833 106 (5.8) 1 -
   Yes 21 3 (14.3) 0.5 (0.1-1.7) - 821 78 (9.5) 1.7 (1.2-2.3)** -
Travelling         
   Rarely 637 167 (26.2) 1 - 2377 169 (7.1) 1 -
   Frequently 53 10 (18.9) 0.7 (0.3-1.4) - 36 5 (14.0) 1.4 (0.8-2.5) -
Sexual behaviour
Sexual partners in the past 12 months         
   One only 666 167 (25.1) 1 - 2537 171 (6.7) 1 -
   More than one 19 9 (47.4) 2.7 (1.1-6.7)** - 117 13 (11.1) 1.7 (1-3.1) -
Lifetime sexual partners         
   One 496 93 (18.8) 1 1 1490 35 (2.4) 1 1
   Two or more 189 83 (43.9) 3.4 (2.3-5.0)** 3.0 (1.8-5.1)** 1164 149 (12.8) 6.1 (4.2-9.2)** 3.9 (2.6-5.9)**
Age (years) of sexual debut         
   At or after 16 618 157 (25.4) 1 - 2288 147 (6.4) 1 1
   Below 16 67 19 (28.4) 1.2 (0.6-2.1) - 366 37 (10.1) 1.6 (1.1-2.4)** 1.6 (1.1-2.4)*
Ever used a condom         
   No 374 82 (21.9) 1 - 2004 121 (6.0) 1 -
   Yes 302 91 (30.1) 1.5 (1.1-2.2)** - 650 63 (9.7) 1.7 (1.2-2.3)** -
Uses herbs to tighten vagina         
   No 589 148 (25.1) 1 - 1233 90 (7.3) 1 -
   Yes 96 29 (30.2) 1.3 (0.8-2.1) - 97 6 (6.2) 0.8 (0.3-2.0) -
Siblings have different fathers         
   No 554 119 (21.5) 1 - 1217 59 (4.9) 1 1
   Yes 99 52 (52.5) 4.0 (2.5-6.5)** - 1437 125 (8.7) 1.9 (1.3-2.6)** 1.6 (1.1-2.4)*
Other infections, signs and symptoms         
HSV-2         
   No 309 21 (6.8) 1 1 844 104 (12.3) 1 1
   Yes 323 137 (42.4) 10.1 (6.2-16.6)** 5.3 (3.0-9.5)** 427 79 (18.5) 1.6 (1.2-2.2)** 3.1 (2.2-4.5)**
Syphilis         
   No 654 160 (24.5) 1 - 2631 178 (6.7) 1 1
   Yes 8 5 (62.5) 5.1 (1.2-21.8)** - 23 6 (26.1) 4.9 (1.9-12.5)** 9.4 (2.4-36.2)**
Trichomoniasis         
   No 600 140 (23.3) 1 - 2428 170 (7.0) 1 -
   Yes 80 32 (40.0) 2.2 (1.3-3.6)** - 127 13 (10.2) 1.5 (0.8-2.8) -
Bacterial vaginosis         
   No 403 72 (17.9) 1 1 2022 115 (5.7) 1 1
   Yes 195 75 (38.5) 2.9 (1.9-4.3)** 3.0 (1.8-5.0)** 533 68 (12.8) 2.4 (1.7-3.4)** 2.2 (1.5-3.1)**
History of schistosomiasis         
   No 559 140 (25.0) 1 - 1276 94 (7.4) 1 -
   Yes 120 33 (27.5) 1.1 (0.7-1.8) - 56 2 (3.6) 0.5 (0.1-1.8) -
Vaginal pH > 4.5         
   No 197 40 (20.3) 1 - 1673 99 (5.9) 1 -
   Yes 415 113 (27.2) 1.6 (0.9-2.6)* - 882 84 (9.5) 1.7 (1.2-2.3)** -
Clinical genital warts         
   No 557 129 (23.2) 1 1 2522 178 (7.1) 5 1 -
   Yes 44 23 (52.3) 3.6 (1.9-7.1)** 3.0 (1.1-8.6)* 33 (15.2) 2.4 (0.9-6.1)* -
Clinical genital ulcer         
   No 578 140 (24.2) 1 1 2514 175 (7.0) 8 1 1
   Yes 16 10 (62.5) 5.2 (1.9-14.6)** 3.6 (1.1-11.8)* 41 (19.5) 3.2 (1.3-6.3)* 2.7 (1.1-6.8)*
Previous genital warts         
   No 653 163 (25.0) 1 - 2606 178 (6.8) 6 1 -
   Yes 33 13 (39.4) 2.0 (1.0-4.0)* - 48 (12.5) 1.9 (0.8-4.6) -
Previous genital ulcer         
   No 643 157 (24.4) 1 - 2569 174 (6.8) 1 -
   Yes 44 19 (43.2) 2.4 (1.3-4.4)** - 85 10 (11.8) 1.8 (0.9-3.6)* -
Partner characteristics         
Current partner circumcised         
   No 606 154 (25.3) 1 - 52 6 (11.5) 1 -
   Yes 51 14 (27.5) 1.1 (0.5-2.2) - 2361 168 (7.1) 0.6 (0.2-1.7) -
Current partner frequent traveler         
   No 391 98 (25.1) 1 - 1794 108 (6.0) 1 1
   Yes 268 71 (26.5) 1.1 (0.7-1.6) - 619 66 (10.7) 1.9 (1.3-2.6)** 1.9 (1.3-2.7)**
  1. 1OR stands for odds ratio, 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio are given2d/s/w represents divorced/separated/widowed
  2. * = p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.001
  3. All factors with a p value of less than 0.25 in univariate analysis were included in multivariate analysis, and adjusted odds ratios which had a p value of less than 0.10 are included in this table.