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Table 3 Sexual risk behaviours of orphans versus non-orphans, by orphan subgroup

From: HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study n ♂♀ All orphans vs. non-orphans Maternal orphans vs. non-orphans Paternal orphans vs. non-orphans Double orphans vs. non-orphans
   US S MP FS TS US S MP FS TS US S MP FS TS US S MP FS TS
Birdthistle [29] 863 ♀       ns * * ns ns ns ns ns ns ns * ns ns
Gregson [30] 1523 ♂♀        * ns     ns ns        
Kang [31] 196 ♀ ns * ns ns ns ns ns ns * ns ns ns ns ns      
McGrath [37] 8753 ♂♀        *      *         
Nyamukapa [33] 4660 ♂♀       ns *   ns   *♂ *   *   ns ns   ns  
Operario [34] 11,904 ♂♀ *♂ * *♀ ns ns                
Palermo [35] Benin 1801 ♀   ns      ns      ns      *    
Palermo [35] Chad 884 ♀   ns      ns      ns      ns    
Palermo [35] Congo 914 ♀   ns      ns      ns      ns    
Palermo [35] Cote d'Ivoire 711 ♀   *      ns      *      ns    
Palermo [35] Lesotho 1043 ♀   *      ns      *      *    
Palermo [35] Malawi 1337 ♀   ns      ns      ns      *    
Palermo [35] Mozambique 1484 ♀   *      ns      *      ns    
Palermo [35] Tanzania 1375 ♀   *      *      ns      ns    
Palermo [35] Uganda 1219 ♀   ns      *      ns      ns    
Palermo [35] Zimbabwe 1207 ♀   ns      ns      ns      ns    
Thurman [36] 1694 ♂♀ ns * ns * *                
  1. n = total number of participants. US = unprotected sex. S = ever had sex. MP = multiple partners in lifetime. FS = forced or unwilling sex. TS = transactional sex. * = significant difference with orphans reporting higher risk than non-orphans. ns = no significant difference between orphans and non-orphans. *♀ = significant among females but not males, orphans reporting higher risk. *♂ = significant among males but not females, orphans reporting higher risk. † = significant difference with non-orphans reporting higher risk than orphans.