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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Location (year) Study design Sampling method Sample characteristics HIV-related variables
Birdthistle [29] Harare (Highfield area), Zimbabwe (2004) Cross-sectional Representative household sampling n = 863; females only; age range 14 to 20; participation rate = 67% Biological testing: HIV status, HSV-2
Self-report: Pregnancy, ever had sex, >1 partner in lifetime, regular partner at time of interview, ever forced to have sex, ever had exchange sex, first sex was forced, first sexual partner 10+ years older, condom not used during first sex
Gregson [30] Manicaland, Zimbabwe (2001-3) Cross-sectional Stratified population-based household sampling n = 1523; males = 31%, females = 69%; age range for males 17 to 18; age range for females 15 to 18; participation rate = 75% Biological testing: HIV infection
Self-report: History of STI symptoms, pregnancy, ever had sex, currently married, more than one partner in lifetime
Kamali [38] 15 rural villages in Masaka district, Uganda (1989-1993) Longitudinal Sample included all consenting residents in the selected villages in 1989-90 n = 4975; included both males and females but percentages unclear; age range 0 to 15 Biological testing: HIV-1 infection testing carried out among 4594 participants
Kang [31] Epworth and Chitungwiza (near Harare), Zimbabwe (year not known) Cross-sectional Convenience sampling n = 196; females only; age range 16 to 19; participation rate = 98% Biological testing: HIV infection, HSV-2 infection, pregnancy
Self-report: History of STIs and pregnancy, ever had vaginal or anal sex, first sex was forced, had first sex because needed food/money/school fees, used contraceptive during first sex, current relationship is sexual, receives basic needs from partner, ever consumed alcohol, more than one partner in lifetime
Kissin [32] St Petersburg, Russia (2006) Cross-sectional Systematic venue-based sampling n = 313; males = 63%, females = 27%; age range 15 to 19; participation rate = 92% Biological testing: HIV infection
Self-report: Ever had sex, lifetime transactional sex, lifetime anal sex, past-year same-sex partner, past-year number of partners, lifetime STI diagnosis, pregnancy
McGrath [37] Umkhanyakude district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (2003-7) Longitudinal Representative household sampling n = 8753; male = 46%, female = 54%; age range 12 to 25 Self-report: Ever had sex, age at first sex
Nyamukapa [33] 21 rural and urban districts in Zimbabwe (2004) Cross-sectional Purposive sampling of districts (on the basis of poverty and education); census enumeration areas selected according to size and geography; households within each enumeration area selected to fulfill quota n = 4660; male = 51%, female = 49%; age range 12 to 17 years Self-report: Ever had sex, early sexual intercourse, ever forced to have sex, ever engaged in high-risk sex
Operario [34] All nine provinces in South Africa (2003) Cross-sectional National, representative household sampling n = 11,904; male = 48%, female = 52%; age range 15 to 24; participation rate = 77% Biological testing: HIV infection
Self-report: STI in past year, pregnancy history, ever had oral sex, ever had vaginal sex, ever had anal sex, >1 sex partner in past year, last sex was unprotected, ever forced to have sex, ever had transactional sex
Palermo [35] Benin (2006), Chad (2005), Congo (2005), Cote d'Ivoire (2005), Lesotho (2004), Malawi (2004), Mozambique (2003), Tanzania (2004), Uganda (2006), Zimbabwe (2005-6) Cross-sectional National, representative household sampling Total n = 11,975 [range n = 711 (Cote d'Ivoire), n = 1801 (Benin)]; all females; age range 15 to 17 Self-report: Ever had sex, pregnancy
Thurman [36] Durban Metro and Mtunzini district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (2001) Cross-sectional Multi-stage cluster sampling approach; all households within selected census enumeration areas were contacted n = 1694; male = 47%, female = 53%; age range 14 to 18 years; participation rate = 95% Self-report: Ever had vaginal sex, relative age difference of current sex partner, more than one partner in past year, ever had transactional sex, condom used during last sex, had first sex at age 13 or under, first sexual partner age 17 or older, first sex was willing, first sex was persuaded, first sex was tricked, first sex was forced, condom used during first sex