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Table 3 Concerns about taking antiretroviral therapy in a cross-sectional survey in Zambia*

From: Barriers to initiation of antiretroviral treatment in rural and urban areas of Zambia: a cross-sectional study of cost, stigma, and perceptions about ART

  Urban Rural Total
At the time of making the decision about taking ARVs (or in general*), I (people) believe(d) that... Home-based care On ART Relative risk
(95% CI)
Home-based care On ART Relative risk
(95% CI)
Relative risk
(95% CI)
Benefits of ARVs        
   If I take ARVs...        
   I will feel better/stop being sick 154/199 (77.4%) 164/197 (83.2%) 0.93 (0.84 - 1.03) 134/199 (67.3%) 122/200 (61.0%) 1.10 (0.95 - 1.28) 1.00 (0.92 - 1.09)
   I will be happier 29/199 (14.6%) 40/198 (20.2%) 0.72 (0.47 - 1.12) 21/198 (10.6%) 17/200 (8.5%) 1.25 (0.68 - 2.29) 0.88 (0.62 - 1.25)
   I will be able to take care of my family 43/199 (21.6%) 62/198 (31.3%) 0.69 (0.49 - 0.97) 44/199 (22.1%) 40/199 (20.1%) 1.10 (0.75 - 1.61) 0.85 (0.66 - 1.09)
   If I do not take ARV treatment I will die 151/190 (79.5%) 164/194 (84.5%) 0.94 (0.86 - 1.03) 157/187 (84.0%) 155/198 (78.3%) 1.07 (0.97 - 1.18) 1.00 (0.94 - 1.07)
Fear and stigma        
   I am afraid of stigma 61/198 (30.8%) 31/197 (15.7%) 1.96 (1.33 - 2.88) 88/199 (44.2%) 50/198 (25.3%) 1.75 (1.32 - 2.33) 1.83 (1.45 - 2.31)
   I am afraid of abuse 37/198 (18.7%) 18/198 (9.1%) 2.06 (1.21 - 3.48) 54/199 (27.1%) 37/199 (18.6%) 1.46 (1.01 - 2.11) 1.65 (1.22 - 2.24)
   If I go to the clinic people will not like me 88/193 (45.6%) 38/187 (20.3%) 2.24 (1.62 - 3.10) 86/188 (45.7%) 38/193 (19.7%) 2.32 (1.68 - 3.21) 2.28 (1.82 - 2.87)
   I am afraid to go to the ARV clinic 100/185 (54.1%) 32/195 (16.4%) 3.29 (2.34 - 4.64) 99/185 (53.5%) 26/194 (13.4%) 3.99 (2.72 - 5.85) 3.61 (2.80 - 4.66)
   My family doesn't want me to take ARVs 2/197 (1.0%) 0/198 (0%)   19/198 (9.6%) 5/200 (2.5%) 3.84 (1.46 - 10.1) 4.23 (1.61 - 11.1)
Harms of/difficulties with ARVs        
   ARVs will make me sick 47/197 (23.9%) 25/198 (12.6%) 1.89 (1.21 - 2.94) 40/199 (20.1%) 35/200 (17.5%) 1.15 (0.76 - 1.73) 1.46 (1.08 - 1.96)
   I do not have enough food to take ARVs 50/198 (25.3%) 19/198 (9.6%) 2.63 (1.61 - 4.30) 57/198 (28.8%) 34/200 (17.0%) 1.69 (1.16 - 2.47) 2.03 (1.51 - 2.73)
   ARVs are bad 28/174 (16.1%) 21/189 (11.1%) 1.45 (0.86 - 2.45) 30/184 (16.3%) 14/198 (7.1%) 2.31 (1.26 - 4.21) 1.79 (1.21 - 2.66)
   If I take ARV treatment I will die 62/187 (33.2%) 20/185 (10.8%) 3.07 (1.93 - 4.86) 81/189 (42.9%) 29/199 (14.6%) 2.94 (2.02 - 4.28) 2.98 (2.23 - 3.99)
Need for ARVs        
   I do not want to take any medicine 48/173 (27.7%) 15/198 (7.6%) 3.66 (2.13 - 6.30) 29/181 (16.0%) 9/197 (4.6%) 3.51 (1.71 - 7.21) 3.58 (2.32 - 5.53)
   I do not need ARVs because I am not sick 5/62 (8.1%) 1/197 (0.5%) 15.9 (1.89 - 133) 1/52 (1.9%) 0/200 (0%)   20.89 (2.54 - 172)
   I would rather take traditional medicines 15/177 (8.5%) 4/193 (2.1%) 4.09 (1.38 - 12.1) 21/176 (11.9%) 5/191 (2.6%) 4.56 (1.76 - 11.8) 4.35 (2.13 - 8.90)
  1. * Those in the HBC programme who did not actively decide to forgo ART were asked if they currently believed each question, and questions were asked about concerns that "people" had about ARVs.