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Table 2 Factors associated with death and loss to follow up (LTFU) after 24 months of ART (n = 2291)a,b

From: Increased vulnerability of rural children on antiretroviral therapy attending public health facilities in South Africa: a retrospective cohort study

Patient factor HR (95% CI) of death HR (95% CI) of LTFU
  Univariate Adjusted Univariate Adjusted
Male gender 0.86 (0.54-1.38) 0.83 (0.51-1.34) 1.06 (0.79-1.42) 1.1 (0.82-3.12)
Age     
>2 years 1 1 1 1
1-2 years 1.75 (0.89-3.46) 1.50 (0.74-2.98) 1.69 (1.11-2.57) 1.61 (0.96-2.68)
<1 year 3.72 (1.88-7.35) 2.73 (1.32-5.53) 1.87 (1.06-3.31) 1.81 (0.94-3.64)
Severe clinical status     
No 1 1 1 1
Yes 5.34 (3.07-9.43) 4.50 (2.52-8.00) 1.74 (1.23-2.46) 1.47 (1.03-2.12)
Not available 5.10 (2.62-9.93) 5.03 (2.37-10.68) 2.37 (1.62-3.50) 1.63 (1.02-2.59)
    Immunodeficiency     
Not severe 1 1 1 1
Severe 8.71 (2.11-35.8) 6.77 (1.63-28.1) 0.85 (0.57-1.29) 0.81 (0.52-1.24)
Not available 8.80 (2.06-37.7) 4.74 (1.08-20.7) 1.68 (1.10-2.56) 1.18 (0.74-1.87)
Tuberculosis at ART start     
No 1 1 1 1
Yes 2.88 (1.24-6.67) 2.71 (1.15-6.34) 1.49 (0.73-3.02) 1.41 (0.69-2.86)
    Initial ART regimen     
Non PI-based 1 1 1 1
PI-based 1.37 (0.80-2.37) 1.45 (0.72-2.96) 1.42 (1.02-1.98) 1.34 (0.88-2.04)
Non d4t-based 1 1 1 1
d4T-based 0.91 (0.33-2.52) 0.87 (0.32-2.54) 0.80 (0.46-1.42) 0.79 (0.44-1.44)
Urban/rural classification     
Urban 1 1 1.67 (0.89-3.19) 1.14 (0.57-2.24)
Rural 2.39 (1.31-4.36) 2.41 (1.25-4.67) 1 1
Rural/urban 1.17 (0.60-2.26) 1.02 (0.51-2.10) 2.38 (1.36-5.39) 2.85 (1.41-5.79)
  1. aAdjusted hazard ratios are adjusted for all variables displayed in the table
  2. b41 (1.7%) of children were excluded due to missing baseline tuberculosis treatment information