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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of ART-naïve children beginning antiretroviral therapy

From: Increased vulnerability of rural children on antiretroviral therapy attending public health facilities in South Africa: a retrospective cohort study

  All Urban Rural Rural/Urban P value Group differinga
  (n = 2332) (n = 1727) (n = 228) (n = 377)   
Median age, y (IQR) 5.8 (3.0-9.0) 5.6 (2.8-8.9) 6.7 (4.3-10.0) 5.8 (3.2-9.3) 0.0001 Rural
Age group categories, n (%)      0.001 Rural
<1 year 129 (5.5) 112 (6.5) 3 (1.3) 14 (3.7)   
1-2 yrs 246 (10.6) 188 (10.9) 17 (7.5) 41 (10.9)   
2-5 yrs 834 (35.8) 628 (36.4) 72 (31.6) 134 (35.5)   
6-10 yrs 814 (34.8) 573 (33.2) 94 (41.2) 145 (38.5)   
≥11 yrs 311 (13.3) 226 (13.1) 42 (18.4) 43 (11.4)   
Female, n (%) 1174 (50.3) 887 (51.3) 98 (42.0) 189 (50.1) 0.059 Rural
WHO clinical stage, n (%), (n = 1836)      0.059 Rural
I/II 615 (33.5) 468 (33.1) 64 (41.8) 83 (31.0)   
III/IV 1221 (66.5) 947 (66.9) 89 (58.2) 185 (69.0)   
Weight-for-age z-score, mean (95% CI), (n = 1572) -1.51 (-1.59 to -1.44) -1.46 (-1.54 to -1.38) -2.06 (-2.30 to -1.82) -1.41 (-1.60 to -1.22) <0.0001 Rural
Weight-for-age z-score < -3, n (%) 253 (16.1) 177 (15.0) 42 (25.9) 34 (14.9) <0.002 Rural
Height-for-age z-score, mean (95% CI), (n = 359) -1.96 (-2.11 to -1.82) -1.91 (-2.01 to -1.75) -2.26 (-2.70 to -1.82) -1.96 (-2.26 to -1.27) 0.271  
Severe clinical status, n (%), (n = 2057) 549 (26.7) 399 (25.9) 53 (27.0) 97 (30.3) 0.265  
CD4 cell percentage; median (IQR), (n = 1425) 12.2 (7.0-18.0) 12.8 (7.1-19.0) 10.0 (6.0-14.2) 12.8 (6.3-18.1) 0.0003 Rural
Absolute CD4 cell count (cells/mm 3 ); median (IQR), (n = 1665) 271 (54-630) 301 (50-685) 212 (77-405) 206 (24-607) 0.0019 Urban
Severe immunodeficiency, n (%), (n = 1772) 1285 (72.5) 933 (71.5) 172 (79.6) 180 (72.0) 0.045 Rural
TB treatment at ART initiation, n (%), (n = 2291) 79 (3.5) 51 (3.0) 8 (3.5) 20 (5.3) 0.090  
Initial ART regimen, n (%), (n = 2280)       
NNRTI-based 1714 (75.2)a 1211 (71.9) 210 (93.8) 293 (79.0) <0.0001 Rural
PI-based 556 (24.4)a 467 (27.7) 14 (6.3) 75 (20.2) <0.0001 Rural
Including d4t 2147 (94.2)b 1555 (92.3) 224 (100) 368 (99.2) <0.0001 Urban
Including ZDV 143 (6.3)b 137 (8.1) 0 (0) 6 (1.6) <0.000 Urban
Province, n (%)      <0.0001 Urban
Western Cape 552 (23.7) 552 (31.9) 0 (0) 0 (0)   
Eastern Cape 102 (4.4) 100 (5.8) 2 (0.9) 0 (0)   
KwaZulu-Natal 1654 (70.9) 1065(61.7) 212 (93.0) 377 (100)   
Mpumalanga 24 (1.0) 10 (0.6) 14 (6.1) 0 (0)   
  1. aIndicates group differing significantly from the other groups
  2. b10 children received d4t and ZDV, and did not receive an NNRTI or a PI
  3. WHO: World Health Organization