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Table 1 Comparison of HIV risk factors for 691 pregnant women (mean age 24.2 years) in Zimbabwe and 2654 pregnant women (mean age 24.6 years) in Tanzania

From: Sexual behaviour does not reflect HIV-1 prevalence differences: a comparison study of Zimbabwe and Tanzania

Variable Harare, Zimbabwe Moshi, Tanzania p value
  n/N % n/N %  
HIV-positive status 177/691 25.6 184/2654 6.9 < 0.001
Socio-demographic characteristics and risky sexual behaviour
   Casual sex partner in last 12 months 19/685 2.8 177/2654 4.4 0.054
   More than one lifetime sexual partner 189/685 27.6 1164/2654 43.9 < 0.001
   Sexual debut before 16 years 67/685 9.8 366/2654 13.8 0.005
   Never used condoms 374/676 55.3 2004/2654 75.5 < 0.001
   Use herbs to tighten vagina 96/685 14.0 97/1330 7.3 < 0.001
   Siblings have different fathers 99/653 15.2 1437/2654 54.1 < 0.001
   Polygamous relationship 54/674 8.0 296/2654 11.2 0.018
   Drinks alcohol 21/677 3.1 821/2654 30.9 < 0.001
   Travels outside residential area frequently 53/690 7.7 36/2413 1.5 < 0.001
Other infections, signs and symptoms
   HSV-2 positive 323/632 51.1 427/1271 33.6 < 0.001
   Syphilis positive 8/662 1.2 23/2654 0.9 0.638
   Trichomoniasis positive 80/680 11.8 127/2555 5.0 < 0.001
   Bacterial vaginosis positive 195/598 32.6 533/2555 20.9 < 0.001
   History of schistosomiasis 120/679 17.7 56/1332 4.2 < 0.001
   Currently have genital warts 44/601 7.3 33/2599 1.3 < 0.001
   Currently have genital ulcers 16/594 2.7 41/2555 1.6 0.073
   Had genital warts in the last 12 months 33/686 4.8 48/2654 1.8 < 0.001
   Had genital ulcer in the last 12 months 44/687 6.4 85/2654 3.2 < 0.001
Partner characteristics
   Current partner not circumcised 606/657 92.2 52/2413 2.1 < 0.001
   Current partner travels frequently 268/659 40.7 619/2413 25.6 < 0.001
  1. n: number HIV positive; N: number tested